A Knowledge Cafe (also known as a Gurteen Knowledge Cafe) is a meeting of around 32 people. The format enables rich and rewarding conversations on a topic of mutual interest. Participants immerse themselves in the topic, share knowledge, hatch ideas, gain insights, acquire new perspectives, strengthen relationships, and establish new connections.

David Gurteen
The originator of the Knowledge Cafe format is David Gurteen (pictured), an influential practitioner in the areas of knowledge management and conversational leadership. Over the course of 15 years, he has facilitated Knowledge Cafes in more than 30 countries.

The Knowledge Cafe format


Studies conducted by David Gurteen and others reveal that the maximum group size for a proper conversation is four, or five at a push. I call this the Max4 Principle. Read more here.

No flipcharts. Individual note taking is OK but flipchart capture and subsequent report-outs hinder effective conversation.

The opening session should be no longer than 20 minutes.

Facilitation during the final session requires a light touch.

The host does not invite or answer questions.

Room layout

Opening session: Participants are seated theatre-style. Cafe host speaks from front of room with visual aids if required.

Second session (formed of two or three rounds): Chairs are rearranged into groups of four. Host sits to one side and does not intervene.

Final session: Chairs are rearranged into a single circle. Host stands in the centre of the circle.


Visit David Gurteen's dedicated Knowledge Cafe website
  1. Cafe host welcomes participants, explains the process, introduces the topic and gives a brief talk followed by a compelling question.
  2. Participants break into groups of four and have a conversation in response to the question.
  3. New groups of four are formed and the conversations continue.
  4. If time permits, new groups of four are formed and the conversations continue.
  5. Chairs are rearranged to form a circle. Participants take their seats and conversations continue. Host ensures that all voices are heard and that no one dominates the discussion.
  6. Host thanks participants for their contributions and closes the proceedings.

Watch David Gurteen host a Knowledge Cafe in Dubai on behalf of the Knowledge and Human Development Authority

Runtime 3:53.

Whenever you are planning to give a PowerPoint presentation followed by a Q&A session, consider hosting a Knowledge Cafe instead. You will need more time but participants will have a richer and more rewarding experience.

Continue reading

External websites

Knowledge Cafe website

Knowledge Cafe tipsheet, by David Gurteen and Steve O’Hagan

Knowledge Cafe articles by David Gurteen

This website

Create-the-new methods | Setting Newcreate in a wider context

Create-the-new work: create alone, create together, help others create

The Max4 Principle | The maximum group size for a proper conversation is four

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